Application Notes

Application Notes are peer-reviewed articles written by engineers, researchers, and graduates of academic institutions for various journals or publications.

Our instruments are used in a variety different experiments and studies to further research and produce conversation about the change and/or enhancements occuring within oilfield operations. Click the instrument name below to see articles written using our instruments and technology. The instruments have been ordered numerically for your convenience.

  1. Minimizing Environment and Economic Risks With a Proppant-Sized Solid-Scale-Inhibitor Additive in the Bakken Formation
    Development of a new solid-scale inhibitor additive, which is also proppant-sized, in order to minimize environmental hazards in hydraulic fracturing jobs.
    SPE 159701 (M3500)
  2. Evaluation of Micronized Ilmenite as a Weighting Material in Oil-based Drilling Fluids for HPHT Applications
    Analysis of oil-based drilling muds containing ilmenite as a weighting material based off laboratory studies of the rheological properties at high temperatures as well as filtration characteristics. M3600 was used to measure rheologies of drilling fluids.
    SPE 165184
  3. Comprehensive Assessment of Additive and Class G Cement Properties Affecting Rheology, Fluid Loss, Setting Time and Long Term Characteristics of Elastic Cements
    Experimental assessment of non-foamed cement slurries in order to obtain rheological and mechanical properties subjected to both room and high pressure and temperature systems.
    SPE 167731 (M3500 Viscometer)
  4. Field Monitoring of Weight-Material Sag
    Laboratory study of drilling fluids as to measure sag-related properties and introduction of new testing techniques that will manage weight-material sag in field operations.
    AADE-10-DF-HO-25 (M3500)
  5. Rheological properties of palygorskite-bentonite and sepiolite-bentonite mixed clay suspensions
    Investigation into the rheological properties of mixed bentonite-palygorskite suspensions and the influences of layer charge and smectite content on the rheological data.
    Applied Clay Science 90 (2014) 165-174 (M3500)
  6. Gelation of water-bentonite suspensions at high temperatures and rheological control with lignite addition
    Experimental study of the effectiveness of lignite addition to bentonite drilling fluids as to control gelation and identify ideal rheological control agents.
    Applied Clay Science 36 (2007) 221-223 (M3500)
The M3500 has been replace by the M3600. Please visit the M3600 Automatic Viscometer webpage here.

  1. Water Activity Characteristics of Deep Brittle Shale from Southwest China
    Investigation of water activity in deep brittle shale from Sichuan Basin and its impact on the physical and mechanical properties of the rock including uniaxial compressive strength. The swell ratio was determined with M4600 HTHP Linear Swell Meter.
    Applied Clay Science: Volume 108
Visit the M4600 Linear Swell Meter webpage here.

  1. Internal Phase Breaker Technology for Viscoelastic Surfactant Gelled Fluids
    Implementation of viscosity break tests to gather rheological data of a breaker system for complete and controllable reduction of viscoelastic gel viscosity at temperatures from 80° to 225° F.
    SPE 93449 (M5500 Rheometer)
  2. A Case Study of a Successful Matrix Acid Stimulation Treatment in Horizontal Wells Using a New Diversion Surfactant in Saudi Arabia
    Examination of the rheological properties of brines, foams, and spent acids composed of a new class of viscoelastic surfactants, as well as the diversion abilities of each system.
    SPE 93536 (M5500 Rheometer)
  3. Anionic Surfactant Gel Treatment Fluid
    Rheological testing of anionic viscoelastic surfactant and performance of the system due to the effects of temperature, salt concentrations and co-surfactants.
    SPE 105815
  4. Do Viscoelastic-Surfactant Diverting Fluids for Acid Treatments Need Internal Breakers?
    Introduction of a viscoelastic organic acid fluid, with internal breakers, capable of treating carbonate reservoirs and assuring complete treatment fluid cleanup. M5500 was used to generate rheological data with pressure and temperature.
    SPE 112484 (M5500 Rheometer)
  5. Rheological Properties of a New Class of Viscoelastic Surfactant
    Examination of the rheological properties of a new type of viscoelastic amphoteric surfactant, amine oxide, at temperatures from 75-220°F at 300 psi and various shear rates from 0.01-935 1/sec. M5600 was used to measure the apparent viscosity of live and spend acids under different conditions.
    SPE 121716
  6. Design Criteria and Application of High Density, Brine Based Fracturing Fluid for Deepwater Frac and Packs
    Analysis of fluid rheology, proppant transport, and fluid compatibility of high-density brine-based fluids implemented in deepwater Gulf of Mexico wells.
    SPE 124704
  7. Impact of Organic Acids/Chelating Agents on the Rheological Properties of an Amidoamine Oxide Surfactant
    Experimental investigation of organic acids and chelating agents used in amidoamine oxide surfactants, and their abilities to affect rheological properties of live and spent acid systems. M5600 was use to measure the apparent viscosity of live and spent acids under different conditions.
    SPE 128091
  8. Protecting Reservoir with Surfactant Micellar Drill-in Fluids in Carbonate-Contained Formations
    Development of a new surfactant micellar-based drilling fluid with internal breakers system in order to drill in carbonate contained reservoirs. M5500 was used to measure viscosity data for the surfactant-acid based on DIFs reacting with carbonate and crude oil contact with acid spent surfactant DIF.
    SPE 135166 (M5500 Rheometer)
  9. Impact of Hydrolysis at High Temperatures on the Apparent Viscosity of Carboxybetaine Viscoelastic Surfactant-Based Acid
    Study the viscosity alterations of amido-carboxybetaine acid fluids as a result of hydrolysis at high temperatures. M5600 was used to measure apparent viscosity vs. shear rate at 25°C and 1 atm.
    SPE 142264
  10. A New Technique to Control Fines Migration in Poorly Consolidated Sandstones
    Development of a new aqueous chemical system added directly to the treatment fluid in attempt to control migration of fines near wellbore as well as the fracture area. M5600 was used to measure viscosity of borate-crosslink guar and VES fluids.
    SPE 143947
  11. Characterization of Self-destructing Filter cake by Using computer Tomography
    Measuring the efficiency of filter cake removal method using a water-based drilling fluid system under high pressure high temperature conditions. M5600 was used to measure vscosity of filtrate fluid at 225°F and 300 psi.
    SPE 148124
  12. Compatibility and Phase Behavior Studies Between Corrosion Inhibitors and Surfactants-Based Acids
    Rheological performance, specifically viscosity, G', and G'', of amine oxide surfactants containing corrosion inhibitors from 75 to 300°F at 300 psi. M5600 was used to measure the rheological properties of live and spent acids under different conditions.
    SPE 151641
  13. Acid Placement: An Effective VES System to Stimulate High-Temperature Carbonate Formations
    Through the use of oscillatory rheometer, rotational viscometer, and coreflood tests, rheological properties of a new viscoelastic system which can form gel and maintain its viscosity at temperatures up to 300°F are analyzed. M5600 was used to rheological properties at 300 psi and a temperature range of 75 to 300 °F.
    SPE 157316
  14. Surfactant-Based Fluid-Loss Pills for ZnBr2 Based High-Density Completion Fluids and High-Temperature Applications
    Experimental investigation into the ability of a new surfactant system to effectively control fluid loss in high-density brine that contains ZnBr2 solutions at high temperatures up to 300°F. M5600 was used to measure viscosity and viscoelastic properties of surfactant to control fluid loss.
    SPE 165146
  15. Hydrolysis Effect on the Properties of a New Class of Viscoelastic Surfactant-Based Acid and Damage Caused by the Hydrolysis Products
    Observations of viscosity changes of viscoelastic surfactant acid systems at high temperatures and the impact of the damage caused by hydrolysis products. M5600 was used to measure the viscosities of the VES-based acids.
    SPE 165161
  16. New Insights into Shale Fracturing Treatment Design
    Study of the effect of various fracture fluid types on Mancos formation hydraulic breakdown pressure. M5600 was used to measure fluid viscosity.Study of the effect of various fracture fluid types on Mancos formation hydraulic breakdown pressure. M5600 was used to measure fluid viscosity.
    SPE 167754
  17. Optimizing Surfactant Additives for Enhanced Well Stimulation in Bakken Formation
    Laboratory evaluation of stimulation fluid additives and its effectiveness in increasing oil recovery in Bakken formation when used in properly designed fracture treatments. M5600 was used to test compatibility of surfactant A with several fracturing fluids.
    SPE 168180
  18. Effect of Dissolved Solids on Reuse of Produced Water and Proppant Handling in Hydraulic Fracturing Jobs in Tight Sand Gas Reservoirs
    Laboratory analysis of dissolved solid contents found in producing water and its effects on borate crosslinked guar-based polymers ability to transport proppant. M5600 was used to measure viscosity of gel at 140 °F and pressure of 300 psi.
    SPE 168614
  19. Innovative Use of NMR to Study the Fracture Fluid Propagation in Shale Formation
    Determination of the volume of fracturing fluid which is able to propagate inside shale cores based on fracturing fluid viscosity and injection pressures. M5600 was used to measure fluid viscosity.
    SPE 168619
  20. Enhancing Well Stimulation with Improved Salt Tolerant Surfactant for Bakken Formation
    Development of a new stimulation surfactant which will enhance the initial production and maintain long term production of the middle-member Bakken formation. M5600 was used to test compatibility of surfactant A with several fracturing fluids.
    SPE 169141
  21. Effect of Dissolved Solids on Reuse of Produced Water in Hydraulic Fracturing Jobs
    Introduction of a new viscoelastic acid system which can form gel and maintain its viscosity at temperatures up to 300° F. M5600 was used to obtain a relationship between the rheological properties and crosslink network structure of a fluid.
    SPE 169408
  22. Nanotechnology Applications in Viscoelastic Surfactant Stimulation Fluids
    Nanotechnology application in viscoelastic stimulation fluid system in order to maintain rheological properties at high temperatures as well as controlling fluid loss without formation damage.
    SPE 107728
  23. Fast Hydrating Fracturing Fluid for Ultra High Temperature Reservoirs
    Development of a fast-hydrating synthetic copolymer and metal crosslinker capable of maintaining ideal rheological properties for successful fracturing operations at bottom-hole temperatures up to 450°F. M5600 was used to evaluate the actual thermal stability of the fluid at the desired temperature and pressure.
    SPE 172018
  24. Viscoelastic Behavior and Proppant Transport Properties of a New High Temperature Viscoelastic Surfactant-Based Fracturing Fluid
    New surfactant technology combining Gemini cationic and anionic surfactants in water, allows for a more effective viscoelastic surfactant system which is able to gel and maintain desirable viscosity at temperatures up to 275°F. M5600 was used to measure rheology of the surfactant gel at a temperature range of 75 to 250 °F and pressure of 500 psi.
    SPE 173745
The M5500 Rheometer has been replaced with the M5600. Visit the M5600 HP/HT Rheometer webpage here.

  1. Optimal Salinity Study to Support Surfactant Imbibition into the Bakken Shale
    Study of dilute surfactant formulations and optimal salinities of Bakken formation waters and oils, in order to examine the potential to imbibe into and displace oil from the formation. IFT measurements between oil and surfactant were conducted at temperatures of 30, 60, 90 °C by means of a M6500 Spinning drop tensiometer.
    SPE 167142
  2. Impact of Surfactants for Wettability Alteration in Stimulation Fluids and the Potential for Surfactant EOR in Unconventional Liquid Reservoirs
    Evaluation and comparison of anionic and nonionic surfactants effect on wettability and interfacial tension alteration in carbonate and siliceous preserved side-wall shale cores. M6500 was used to measure low IFT values (less than 2mN/m) between oil drop and frac fluid.
    SPE 169001
  3. Interfacial Rheology of Heavy Oil-Aqueous Systems at Elevated Temperatures and Pressures: Effect of Diluents
    The effect of diluents on interfacial rheology of a heavy oil and synthetic brine when subjected to high pressure high temperature as well as room temperature and atmospheric pressure conditions. M6500 was used to measure IFT values between diluted oil and synthetic brine.
    SPE 170128
  4. Effect of Surfactant Polymer Interaction on the Interfacial Properties for Chemical EOR
    Investigation of surfactant polymer systems and the interfacial tensions occurring between the various formulations and a Saudi Arabian crude oil at temperatures between 30° and 90° C by a means of M6500 spinning drop tensiometer.
    SPE 172706
Visit the M6500 Spinning Drop Tensiometer webpage here.

  1. Clay Nanoparticles Modified Drilling Fluids for Drilling of Deep Hydrocarbon Wells
    Laboratory investigation of nano-form palysgorskite drilling fluid and its rheological properties including plastic viscosity, yield point, gel strength etc. under operating conditions.
    Applied Clay Science 86 (2013) 76-82
  2. Laboratory Development and Field Application of Novel Cement System for Cementing High-Temperature Oil Wells
    Development of a new cement system consisting of a new retarder and fluid loss control additives, in order to effectively perform a successful cement job in high temperature exploration wells. M7500 was used to measure slurry rheology at 1000 psi and 150 °C.
    SPE 132711
  3. Viscosity Influences of High Pressure on Borate Crosslinked Gels
    Rheological analysis of the influence of high pressures on borate crosslinked gels, specifically significant viscosity losses. M7500 was used to measure viscosity of fracturing fluid (gel) at low pressures.
    SPE 136187
  4. The Unexpected Rheological Behavior of Borate Crosslinked Gels
    Testing of various fracturing fluid systems subjected to pumping pressures typical of hydraulic fracturing treatments, specifically borate crosslinked polymeric fluids. M7500 was used to measure viscosity of fracturing fluid (gel) at low pressures.
    SPE 140400
  5. Shear Sensitivity of Borate Fracturing Fluids
    Laboratory testing procedures to stimulate wellbore shear environment and its impact on the rheological properties and performance of borate crosslinked fluids. M7500 was used to observe pressure sensitivity with viscosity reduction at high pressure and elevated temperature.
    SPE 143962
  6. Advanced Cementing Systems for Deep Sour Gas Wells
    Laboratory development of advanced cement system for cementing deep sour gas wells, characterized by high bottom-hole static temperature and pressure. M7500 was used to test cement slurries following procedures described in API RP10B.
    SPE 149063
  7. Rheological Properties of Invert Emulsion Drilling Fluid Under Extreme HPHT Conditions
    Laboratory analysis of rheological properties of invert drilling fluids under extreme high pressure high temperature conditions (T > 500° F, P > 20,000 psi).
    SPE 151413
  8. Nanomaterials in Fracturing Applications
    Synthesis of the efficiency of guar crosslinking in a boronic acid-functionalized nanoparticles and its potential usage in oilfield materials based on rheological and stability testing.
    SPE 155533
  9. Unusual High-Pressure Tolerance of Polyboronic Crosslinked Gel Under High-Temperature Rheology Conditions
    Rheological testing of polyborate crosslinked fluids at high temperature and pressure to obtain viscosity profile as well as pressure tolerance under such conditions. M7500 was used to test high pressure rheology following standard procedures in API RP39.
    SPE 173708
  10. Development and Application of a State of the Art Fully Synthetic Single Filtration Control Additive Providing Optimum Rheology in WBM: An Innovation of the Medium Temperature Drilling Market
    Development of cost-effective, fully synthetic polymers which maintain rheological properties of water based muds under high pressure and high temperature conditions. M7500 was used to test rheology of water based mud.
    SPE 173715

Visit the M7500 Ultra HP/HT Rheometer webpage here.

  1. Study on the Volumetric Behavior of Base Oils, Brines, and Drilling Fluids Under Extreme Temperatures and Pressures
    Measure PVT data and volumetric behavior of oil, synthetic, and brine based drilling fluids under extreme temperatures and pressures. M7500 was used to test compressibility and thermal expansion of liquid and solid samples.
    SPE 160029
Visit the M7500pvt Ultra HP/HT Pycnometer PVT Tester webpage here.

  1. Innovative technology improves lubricity in high performance water base mud systems: field application in a challenging HP/HT environment
    A high performance lubricant added to water based drilling fluid to improve drilling rate while using advanced drilling system. M8500 was used to conduct sagging test.

    ADIPEC 2013 Technical Conference Manuscript
Visit the M8500 Dynamic Sagging Tester webpage here.